Urban Riparian and Stream Restoration – Seguin on March 20

March 20, 2018
8:30 am – 4:00 pm

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Irma Lewis Seguin Outdoor Learning Center
1865 US-90
Seguin, TX 78155 (Map)

This workshop is being co-hosted by Irma Lewis Seguin Outdoor Learning Center, Geronimo & Alligator Creeks Watershed Partnership, Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority and the AgriLife Extension Office in Guadalupe County, Texas A&M AgriLife and the Texas Water Resources Institute. The training will focus on natural design processes for stream restoration projects. Materials delivered in the training will help attendees understand:

  • Urban stream functions,
  • Impacts of development on urban streams,
  • Recognize healthy versus degraded stream systems,
  • Assess and classify a stream using the Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI), and
  • Comprehend differences between natural and traditional restoration techniques.

Information including the hydrologic cycle, basics to stream morphology, stream classification, stream instability, stream restoration, stabilization structure, vegetation, and monitoring and evaluation will be explained through classroom-style teaching in the morning session and hands-on activities in the field at a nearby stream in the afternoon sessions. Participants will receive a certificate of completion at the end of the training.

Continuing Education Units Available:

  • Texas Water Resources Institute  – 1 CEU
  • Texas Nutrient Management Planning Specialists – 6 hours
  • Certified Crop Advisor- 7 CEUs (Nutrient Mgmt: 1, Soil & Water: 2.5, IPM: 1, Sustainability: 2.5)
  • Texas Board of Architectural Examiners “Acceptable for HSW credit”
  • The program may also be used for CEUs for Professional Engineers.
  • Check with your Chapter for Master Naturalist and Master Gardener to see if it is approved for your area.

Registration is limited to the first 40 people. Cost is $100 and includes all training materials, lunch, and a certificate of completion at the end of the course. Registration is required by March 16, 2018. Register online through the online by following the link above. Lunch will be provided to participants or they may bring their own. Dress is casual and comfortable; please bring boots/waders as we will be out in the field in the afternoon.

Please join our listserv or like us on Facebook for more information on future programs!

The urban riparian and stream restoration program is managed by the Texas Water Resources Institute, part of Texas A&M AgriLife Research AgriLife Extension and the College at Texas A&M University. It is funded through a Clean Water Act grant provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Riparian and Stream Ecosystems – Mid and Lower Cibolo Creek Watershed

March 8, 2018
8:00 am – 4:00 pm

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Bexar Bowling Alley & Social Hall
15681 Bexar Bowling
Marion, TX 78214 (map)

This workshop is being co-hosted by the San Antonio River Authority, The AgriLife Extension Office in Guadalupe County, and the Texas Water Resources Institute. The training will focus on the nature and function of stream and riparian zones and the benefits and direct impacts from healthy riparian zones. The riparian education programs will cover an introduction to riparian principles, watershed processes, basic hydrology, erosion/deposition principles, and riparian vegetation, as well as potential causes of degradation and possible resulting impairment(s), and available local resources including technical assistance and tools that can be employed to prevent and/or resolve degradation.

In 2004, and still in 2014, the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) listed the Lower Cibolo Creek as an impaired water body due to elevated levels of E. coli bacteria. Several other water quality concerns are present in the Mid and Lower Cibolo Creek watershed including low levels of depressed dissolved oxygen and excessive nutrients.

These one-day trainings in watersheds across the state include both indoor classroom presentations and outdoor stream walks. Instructors are experts from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Texas A&M Forest Service, and Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service.

The goal is for participants to better understand and relate to riparian and watershed processes, the benefits that healthy riparian areas provide, and the tools that can be employed to prevent and/or resolve degradation and improve water quality. At the conclusion of the training, participants will receive a certificate of completion.

Continuing Education Units Available:

  • Texas Department of Agriculture Pesticide Applicators License – 3 CEUs
  • Texas Water Resources Institute  – 1 CEU
  • Texas Nutrient Management Planning Specialists – 6 hours
  • Texas Floodplain Management Association – 7 CECs
  • Texas Forestry Association – 6 hours
  • Society of American Foresters – 6 hours
  • Certified Crop Advisor- 7 CEUs (Nutrient Mgmt: 1, Soil & Water: 1.5, IPM: 1.5, Crop Mgmt: 2.5, Manure Mgmt: 0.5)
  • Texas Board of Professional Land Surveying – 7 hours
  • Texas Board of Architectural Examiners “Acceptable for HSW credit”
  • The program may also be used for CEUs for Professional Engineers.
  • Check with your Chapter for Master Naturalist and Master Gardener to see if it is approved for your area.

RSVP is required by Mar. 5, 2018. RSVP online through the online form below or by email to clare.entwistle@ag.tamu.edu. This workshop is free because the program is funded through a Clean Water Act grant provided by the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

A catered lunch is available for participants for $10 or participants may select to bring their own lunch. Please make sure to choose your lunch option while signing up below. Attendees can pay for lunch by credit card using the online system at TAMU Marketplace or pay in cash at the door the day of the event.

Dress is casual and comfortable for the weather as we will be outside at the creek during the afternoon.

For more information or questions, please contact Clare Entwistle at 210-277-0292 x205 or clare.entwistle@ag.tamu.edu

Please join our listserv or like us on Facebook for more information on future programs!

The riparian education program is managed by the Texas Water Resources Institute, part of Texas A&M AgriLife Research AgriLife Extension and the College at Texas A&M University.

 

Riparian and Stream Ecosystem Training–San Jacinto River

March 1, 2018
8:00 am – 4:00 pm

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Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District
655 Conroe Park N Dr
Conroe, TX 77303 (map)

This workshop is being co-hosted by the Houston Galveston Area Council, The AgriLife Extension Office in Montgomery County, and the Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI). The training will focus on the nature and function of stream and riparian zones and the benefits and direct impacts from healthy riparian zones. The riparian education programs will cover an introduction to riparian principles, watershed processes, basic hydrology, erosion/deposition principles, and riparian vegetation, as well as potential causes of degradation and possible resulting impairment(s), and available local technical and financial resources.

These one-day trainings in watersheds across the state include both indoor classroom presentations and outdoor stream walks. Instructors are experts from TWRI, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Texas A&M Forest Service, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M Natural Resources Institute and Houston Galveston Area Council.

The goal is for participants to better understand and relate to riparian and watershed processes, the benefits that healthy riparian areas provide, and the tools that can be implemented to prevent and/or resolve degradation and improve water quality. At the conclusion of the training, participants will receive a certificate of completion.

Continuing Education Units Available

  • Texas Department of Agriculture Pesticide Applicators License – 3 CEUs
  • Texas Water Resources Institute  – 1 CEU
  • Texas Nutrient Management Planning Specialists – 6 hours
  • Texas Floodplain Management Association – 7 CECs
  • Texas Forestry Association – 6 hours
  • Society of American Foresters – 6 hours
  • Certified Crop Advisor- 7 CEUs (Nutrient Mgmt: 1, Soil & Water: 1.5, IPM: 1.5, Crop Mgmt: 2.5, Manure Mgmt: 0.5)
  • Texas Board of Professional Land Surveying – 7 hours
  • Texas Board of Architectural Examiners “Acceptable for HSW credit”
  • The program may also be used for CEUs for Professional Engineers.
  • Check with your Chapter for Master Naturalist and Master Gardener to see if it is approved for your area. This is an approved program for the Texas Waters Specialist Certification Program.

RSVP is required by Feb. 26, 2018. RSVP online through the online form below or by email to clare.entwistle@ag.tamu.edu. This workshop is free because the program is funded through a Clean Water Act grant provided by the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

A catered lunch is available for participants for $10 or participants may select to bring their own lunch. Please make sure to choose your lunch option while signing up below. Attendees can pay for lunch by credit card using the online system at TAMU Marketplace or pay in cash at the door the day of the event.

Dress is casual and comfortable for the weather as we will be outside at the creek during the afternoon.

For more information or questions, please contact Clare Entwistle at 210-277-0292 ext 205 or clare.entwistle@ag.tamu.edu .

Please join our listserv or like us on Facebook for more information on future programs!

The riparian education program is managed by the Texas Water Resources Institute, part of Texas A&M AgriLife Research AgriLife Extension and the College at Texas A&M University.

Texans should prepare for flooding, high winds from Harvey

Writer: Paul Schattenberg, 210-859-5752, paschattenberg@ag.tamu.edu

Contacts: Dr. Andy Vestal, 979-862-3013, t-vestal@tamu.edu

Dr. Joyce Cavanagh, 979-845-3859, jacavanagh@ag.tamu.edu

David Smith, 979-862-1989. dwsmith93@tamu.edu

COLLEGE STATION – With the probability of extensive rain and high winds throughout much  of the state from the resurgence of Tropical Depression Harvey, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service experts are asking Texans to take measures to prepare their houses, farms and ranches for what may come.

“We’re expecting Harvey to bring a lot of rain and flooding over a large area of the state and as he intensifies, some strong winds as well,” said Dr. Andy Vestal, AgriLife Extension specialist in emergency management, College Station. “The storm system may also spur tornadic activity.”

Vestal said people in both urban and rural areas of the state should take steps to prepare for what may come from this storm system to minimize damage and reduce the impact of its aftermath.

He said the Texas Extension Disaster Education Network, Texas EDEN, at http://texashelp.tamu.edu/ has a variety of materials on disaster preparation and recovery.

Forecasts indicate many parts of the state may experience flooding due to T.S. Harvey. (Texas A&M AgriLife Communications photo by Steve Byrns)

Vestal said to avoid being trapped by a flood, it’s best to evacuate before flooding starts.

“Listen to the radio, TV or NOAA Weather Radio and follow directions from local officials regarding evacuation or seek high ground if you experience localized flooding in your area,” he said. “Be prepared to evacuate quickly… know your routes and destinations and where there’s an emergency shelter. If you’re trapped by a flash flood, keep out of flooded areas and away from moving water, whether you’re on foot or in a vehicle. Always remember to turn around, don’t drown.”

Dr. Joyce Cavanagh, AgriLife Extension family development and resource management specialist, College Station, said one of the best things Texans can do to prepare for an emergency is map out a family evacuation plan ahead of time and practice it. The plan should include establishing escape routes and making sure to include all members of the household in a practice session.

“People should also have an emergency kit for their home, office and each vehicle,” Cavanagh said. “The kit should contain enough supplies to take care of immediate family members for at least three days.”

She said some essential kit contents include bottled water, non-perishable foods, a hand-operated can opener, mouth/nose protection masks, extra clothing, first-aid kit, gloves, blankets, toiletries, battery- or hand-powered flashlight, weather radio, spare batteries, garbage bags, medications and anti-bacterial cleaners or wipes.

AgriLife Extension specialist David Smith, College Station, had some additional suggestions for farmers and ranchers on how to prepare livestock for a flood or other natural disaster.

“Emergency preparedness is important for all animals, but especially for livestock because of their size, feed requirement, and shelter and transportation needs,” Smith said. “Farmers and ranchers should assess the risk of flooding in their area and devise an emergency plan to protect their livestock.

“The plan should include contact information for people and resources you may need, such as numbers for neighbors and veterinarians as well as for your area poison control center, animal shelters, animal transportation resources and feedstock providers. It should also include contingencies for food and water for livestock if resources become contaminated.”

Livestock preparedness recommendations include possibly moving cattle to higher ground. (Texas A&M AgriLife Communications photo by Blair Fannin)

Smith said all livestock should have visible identification numbers, such as fire or freeze brands and/or numbered ear tags, even if there’s no plan to remove them from the property.

“Floods often drive livestock to seek shelter and they wind up lost or in a neighbor’s pasture,” he said. “Before a flood, move livestock to higher ground and deny access to flood-prone pastures, barns and other structures. Many livestock drown because they refuse to leave flooded shelters.”

He said farmers and ranchers also need to protect livestock from the threat of fire after a disaster.

“Remove all fuels from the vicinity of barns and turn off electrical power to barns, buildings and other structures that accommodate livestock until the threat of flooding has subsided,” Smith said.

He said in case of high winds, farmers and ranchers should secure or remove anything that could become a projectile or cause serious damage if moved, including trailers, propane tanks, boats and feed troughs.

For more information on preparing livestock, go to http://bit.ly/2xsNrT7.

Vestal said to also watch the sky and tune in to the radio or TV for information on possible tornadic activity.

“If there’s a tornado watch, move closer to a shelter or sturdy building so you can get there promptly if there’s a tornado warning,” he said. “If the warning occurs, take shelter immediately, preferably in a shelter that meets Federal Emergency Management Agency safety criteria. But if not, find a sturdy structure like a church, community center, school, nursing home or hospital.”

He said warning signs of a tornado include the appearance of a dark, sometimes greenish sky with dark, low-lying clouds and large hail stones. A funnel cloud may also appear, and there may be a loud roar like the sound of an approaching freight train.

Vestal suggested property owners remove any damaged or dead limbs from trees, secure trash cans and take any lawn furniture, plant containers, toys or other items that could become projectiles and put them inside the garage or house prior to the storm.

“Remember, mobile homes, even if they’re tied down, aren’t safe during a tornado,” he said. “If there’s a more substantial structure nearby, it’s best to go there if it looks like a tornado may hit your area.”

He also noted mosquitoes often become a problem after a flood or rain event and carry the risk of mosquito-borne disease.

“You can reduce the possibility of mosquitoes breeding on or around your property by removing any items that may hold standing water, such as tires, buckets, planters, toys, kid’s pools, birdbaths and trash containers,” Vestal said. “You can also cover any water storage containers such as buckets, cisterns and rain barrels, so mosquitoes can’t get inside and lay eggs. And if you have a septic tank, repair any cracks or gaps in the system.”

He said a larvicide can be used to treat large water containers of non-potable water that can’t be poured out.

“While we can’t keep natural disasters from occurring, there’s still a lot we can do to prepare for them and keep ourselves and our families safe during them — and in their aftermath,” Vestal said.

Finding Success for Science through Social Media – Tips, Tools, and Tactics for Natural Resource Professionals

Finding Success for Science through Social Media – Tips, Tools, and Tactics for Natural Resource social-media-icons-the-circle-setProfessionals

April 13-14, 2017

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Room 201A, Building B
12100 Park 35 Circle
Austin, TX 78753

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The Web is now more than 25 years old from the first design by Tim Berners-Lee to what we know today in 2014. Things have changed dramatically in design, writing standards and searchability. In addition, smart devices have outsold desktops significantly in the last 5 years. What does that mean to those in outreach and education? It means we have to continue to grow our expertise in learning how to connect the consumer to the important information we provide. We need to understand how content is found, how conversations and learning networks start, how to be discovered and what constitutes quality outreach. We have to know where to post, when to post and what to build on our websites. We have to learn how to reach our traditional clients as well as new clients. There are many successful models that can be used and applied in natural resource outreach and education that can help us down the road of discoverability.

Registration is $100 for both days! Please bring your own device.

April 13th: 1 PM-4 PM

Finding your Tribe –This half day is designed to help you figure out who is using what platforms and why. One of the most common missteps in your social media plan is using the wrong platforms for your goals. Find out what research and user-data tells you about where to put your resources and efforts. We will do some hands-on learning to discover where your tribe is and how your message can reach them. We will look at some of the new platforms as well as your materials and where you want to use them. We will cover accounts, designing strategies, learning best practices, analyzing outreach and planning schedules.

April 14th: 8:30 AM-3:30 PM

Getting Found with all the Noise. We will look at Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest and some of the biggest platforms to learn how writing changes between them and making the most out of your content. How do you get found with so many competing voices? We’ll go through various exercises to help you build good content. We will look at some additional graphics and analysis tools to help you refine your reach. Learn some quick tricks and tips to get you down the road.

Please share with others who may be interested in attending this fabulous and informative course!

Riparian and Stream Ecosystems –Medina and Sabinal Rivers in Bandera on April 18

07.21.16 Upstream (1)Riparian and Stream Ecosystems –Medina and Sabinal Rivers

April 18, 2017
8:00 am – 4:00 pm

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Mansfield Park Recreational Hall 
2886 Hwy 16 N.
Bandera, TX 78003 (map)

This workshop is being co-hosted by the Bandera County River Authority and Groundwater District, the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service office in Bandera County, and the Texas Water Resources Institute. The training will focus on the nature and function of stream and riparian zones and the benefits and direct impacts from healthy riparian zones. The riparian education programs will cover an introduction to riparian principles, watershed processes, basic hydrology, erosion/deposition principles, and riparian vegetation, as well as potential causes of degradation and possible resulting impairment(s), and available local resources including technical assistance and tools that can be employed to prevent and/or resolve degradation.

Currently, the Bandera County River Authority and Groundwater District is actively involved in the Clean Rivers Program in the Medina and Sabinal River Basins, partnering with San Antonio River Authority and Nueces River Authority. The district also maintains in-house surface water quality programs for Bandera County, focusing on recreational sites in the county, including Medina Lake. Additionally, the district also operates an illegal dumping litter abatement program to protect local streams as well as groundwater resources. It is also currently active in expanding early flood warning systems through the technical assistance of the USGS and funds provided by the TWDB and local partners.

These one-day trainings in watersheds across the state include both indoor classroom presentations and outdoor stream walks.

The goal is for participants to better understand and relate to riparian and watershed processes, the benefits that healthy riparian areas provide, and the tools that can be employed to prevent and/or resolve degradation and improve water quality. At the conclusion of the training, participants will receive a certificate of completion.

Continuing Education Units Available

  • Texas Department of Agriculture Pesticide Applicators License – 3 CEUs
  • Texas Water Resources Institute  – 1 CEU
  • Texas Nutrient Management Planning Specialists – 6 hours
  • Texas Floodplain Management Association – 7 CECs
  • Texas Forestry Association – 6 hours
  • Society of American Foresters – 4 hours
  • Certified Crop Advisor- 7 CEUs (Nutrient Mgmt: 1, Soil & Water: 1.5, IPM: 1.5, Crop Mgmt: 2.5, Manure Mgmt: 0.5) (NEW)
  • Texas Board of Professional Land Surveying – 7 hours (NEW)
  • Texas Board of Architectural Examiners “Acceptable for HSW credit”
  • The program may also be used for CEUs for Professional Engineers.
  • Check with your Chapter for Master Naturalist and Master Gardener to see if it is approved for your area.

RSVP is required by April 14, 2017. RSVP online, by email to n-dictson@tamu.edu, by calling Dictson at 979-575-4424. Bandera County River Authority and Groundwater District is providing a catered lunch to participants. Participants may also select to bring their own lunch. Dress is casual and comfortable for the weather as we will be outside at the stream during the afternoon.

For more information or questions please contact Nikki Dictson at 979-458-5915 or n-dictson@tamu.edu.

Please join our listserv or like us on Facebook for more information on future programs!

The riparian education program is managed by the Texas Water Resources Institute, part of Texas A&M AgriLife Research AgriLife Extension and the College at Texas A&M University. It is funded through a Clean Water Act grant provided by the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Conservation Matters: Forest Service reports on droughts' effects on forests and rangelands

Forest Service reports on droughts’ effects on forests and rangelands

Forest Service reports on droughts' effects on forests and rangelandsMortality of Ashe juniper at Colorado Bend State Park, TX, after the 2011 drought. (Photo by Rob Jackson, Stanford University. Courtesy of U.S. Forest Service.)

The U.S. Forest Service has released a new report, Effects of Drought on Forests and Rangelands in the United States: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis, which provides a national assessment of peer-reviewed scientific research on the impacts of drought on U.S. forests and rangelands. This report will help the Forest Service better manage forests and grasslands impacted by climate change.

“Our forests and rangelands are national treasures, and because they are threatened, we are threatened,” said Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack. “This report confirms what we are seeing, that every region of the country is impacted by the direct and indirect effects of drought conditions and volatile weather patterns. Sixty million Americans rely on drinking water that originates on our 193 million acres of national forest and grasslands. They support 200,000 jobs and contribute over $13 billion to local economies every year.”

The report establishes a comprehensive baseline of available data that land managers can use to test how well their efforts to improve drought resilience and adaptation practices are working nationwide. Major findings from the report include:

  • Drought projections suggest that some regions of the U.S. will become drier and that most will have more extreme variations in precipitation.
  • Even if current drought patterns remained unchanged, warmer temperatures will amplify drought effects.
  • Drought and warmer temperatures may increase risks of large-scale insect outbreaks and larger wildfires, especially in the western U.S.
  • Drought and warmer temperature may accelerate tree and shrub death, changing habitats and ecosystems in favor of drought-tolerant species.
  • Forest-based products and values – such as timber, water, habitat and recreation opportunities – may be negatively impacted.
  • Forest and rangeland managers can mitigate some of these impacts and build resiliency in forests through appropriate management actions.

“Since 2000, fire seasons have grown longer and the frequency, size and severity of wildland fires have increased,” Vilsack said. “Among the many benefits of having this solid baseline data is the improved ability to identify where restoration work can help forests adapt and prosper while minimizing the threat and impact of future wildfires.”

The assessment, a broad review of existing drought research, provides input to the reauthorized National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), established by Congress in 2006, and the National Climate Assessment (NCA), produced every four years to project major trends and evaluate the effects of global climate change on forests, agriculture, rangelands, land and water resources, human health and welfare, and biological diversity. Together these serve as key, science-based, resources for anyone working to maintain or improve public and private lands in the face of a changing environment.

For more information, read the full U.S. Forest Service news release and report.

Stocked fish ponds more susceptible to oxygen depletion during summer months

Stocked fish ponds more susceptible to oxygen depletion during summer months

Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service photo by Adam Russell.

Summer is beginning to heat up in Texas, and a Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service expert advises landowners to start monitoring stocked ponds for oxygen depletion.

Landowners with stocked fish ponds should be aware of possible problems with oxygen depletion as hot, still days become more prevalent, said Dr. Billy Higginbotham, AgriLife Extension Service wildlife specialist.

From June to September, when the outside air is increasingly hot and pond water temperatures climb, are the time of year when oxygen depletions occur most for a variety of reasons, he said. Improper aquatic weed control, too many pounds of fish and the weather all contribute.

Higginbotham said typical ponds can sustain 1,000 pounds of fish per surface acre through summer months. When the environment is optimized and the pond owner stocks heavily, especially with channel and blue catfish, and feeds heavily with floating fish rations, that density level can be easily met and exceeded.

Oxygen production via photosynthesis can slow or stop after several hot, still, cloudy days, while fish can continue to use oxygen until it falls below 3 parts per million gallons, which stresses fish, Higginbotham said. Fish will then begin swimming to the surface to try to obtain enough oxygen to survive at the air-water interface.

Higginbotham recommends checking the pond at daybreak when oxygen levels are at their lowest daily levels. The pond owner should act quickly if fish are surfacing for air.

Larger fish are affected by low oxygen levels more than smaller fish, he said.

“It’s almost as if they are gasping for air at the air-water interface,” Higginbotham said. “That’s a clear sign of oxygen depletion, and the pond owner should act quickly to avoid a complete die-off of their fish.”

Pond owners can produce more oxygen for fish in various ways.

Backing a boat engine into the pond and circulating the water is one way to create more oxygen, Higginbotham said. Pond owners can also place a water pump in a shallow portion of the pond and spray water along the surface to circulate water along the air-water interface.

Once oxygen levels are restored, Higginbotham said pond owners should investigate the pond conditions that contributed to the depletion. He recommends thinning fish populations to reduce the pounds of fish the pond supports going into the mid-summer months.

Controlling aquatic vegetation can also contribute to oxygen depletion, Higginbotham said. Oxygen is removed from water as plant tissue decomposes, which can create a scenario where a die-off might occur.

Weed control efforts should be done gradually, about 15-20 percent of the vegetation at a time and with a week break between treatments, he said.

An aeration system is also a good investment for landowners to avoid problems or prevent future problems, Higginbotham said.

“Watch very carefully as we enter these still, cloudy days, the dog days of summer,” Higginbotham said. “Be mindful of oxygen depletion and the possibility of losing fish populations.”

Read the full AgriLife TODAY article for more information.

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